women at work

Methodology Overview:

Using data collected between 3/28/2013 and 05/15/2013, we provide gender insights to the following questions:

  • Have you ever negotiated a job offer to get a higher salary or better benefits?
  • Have you ever asked for a raise or promotion?
  • What's the gender of your current boss?
  • Have you ever had a female boss?
The findings, which focus on gender ratios, job level, industry and job category breakdowns for the above questions, are based on a sample 13,500 respondents who are working in the United States.

In addition to data from these optional research questions, we also provide insights into the Gender Wage Gap by examining specific positions and how pay differs between men and women overall, as well as men and women with the same characteristics.


Percentages for Raise, Negotiation and Boss Questions: Percentages were calculated from the total number of respondents who answered any response except “Other” and “Prefer not to answer.”

Total Cash Compensation (TCC): TCC combines base annual salary or hourly wage, bonuses, profit sharing, tips, commissions, and other forms of cash earnings, as applicable. It does not include equity (stock) compensation, cash value of retirement benefits, or value of other non-cash benefits (e.g., healthcare).

Uncontrolled Median Pay (Male or Female): The median pay is the national median (50th Percentile) annual TCC. Half the people doing the job earn more than the median, while half earn less.

The median pay for men and women are examined separately. Variables such as years of experience and education are not controlled for.  This provides a picture of the differences in wages earned by men and women in an absolute sense.

Controlled Female Median Pay: Using our unique database and compensation algorithm, we estimate the controlled median pay by adjusting for outside compensable factors across genders. These factors include years of experience, education, company size, management responsibilities, skills and more.  In order to provide an apples-to-apples comparison, we determine the characteristics of the typical man within a job and then adjust the characteristics of the typical woman in the same job to match those of the average man. The result is the median pay calculated for the average woman if they had the exact same breakdown of compensable factors as the average man.

Controlled Percent Difference in Pay: This is the percent difference in male median pay and controlled female median pay. This is the pay difference that exists between the genders after we control for all measured compensable factors.

Individual Contributors: Any job that isn't in the management classifications of the standard occupational classification (SOC) provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). (See: http://www.bls.gov/soc/soc_structure_2010.pdf). Please note this group does include first-line supervisors.

Managers: Any job in the management classification of SOC that is below the director level.

Directors: Any job in the management classification of SOC that has a director title and is below the executive level.

Executives: Any job in the Top Executive classification of SOC (SOC code 11-1000.00).

Industry Results: For the industry results, we focus on the broadest definition of industries provided by the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?chart=2012).

Job Families: Job Families are based on the families defined by the SOC and surfaced on O*Net (http://www.onetonline.org/)
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