2024 Gender Pay Gap Report (GPGR)

Payscale’s annual Gender Pay Gap Report (GPGR) reveals how much women are paid compared to men according to our Employee Reported Data (ERD). It analyzes both the uncontrolled and controlled pay gaps with data cuts by parent status, job-seeking status, remote work status, education, age, race, job level, industry, occupation, and location, as well as the top jobs where the gender pay gap is widest — even when all pay factors are controlled.

Employers can make an impact on the overall gender pay gap by ensuring fair pay within their own organizations through compensation data, software, and services from Payscale.

Download a copy of the report

What is the gender pay gap?

The gender pay gap is the difference in pay between men and women at scale. Gender pay gap research measures how society values the work of women compared to the work of men by analyzing reasons for the gap. The gender pay gap is based on data science and studied by multiple accredited institutions working on independent data sets.

This year, Equal Pay Day falls on March 12, 2024. This date represents how many additional days into the year women must work to earn what men did in the previous year in the United States, according to the National Women’s Law Center (NWLC). This is not much improved from last year, as the gender pay gap has not closed at all — despite the passing of pay transparency legislation beginning in 2022.

The gap between what women and men are paid persists year over year, indicating that the reasons for the gender pay gap are systemic. The uncontrolled gender pay gap tells us that the distribution of high-earning prestigious jobs in society favors men, while the presence of the controlled gender pay gap tells us that at least some women are still being paid less than men when doing the same jobs.

As our data will show, the gender pay gap persists even when men and women have the same education. It is wider for women who are parents and for women who work from home. The gender pay gap also widens as women age and progress in their careers. It is wider for women in certain occupations and industries as well, and some states and metro areas. However, the gender pay gap has narrowed for women of color.

Are women underpaid in the workplace? Payscale's 2024 gender pay gap report

The gender pay gap over time

As you can see, the median salary for men is higher than the median salary for women. Since Payscale started tracking the gender pay gap, the difference between the earnings of women and men has shrunk, but only by an infinitesimal amount each year. In 2023, the gender pay gap didn’t shrink at all.

The gender pay gap is shown below as the shaded area between the median pay of women and the median pay of men. If the gender pay gap were to close, the dark blue line would cross the aqua line, at least some of the time. It never has.

 

The median pay of men and women over time | Payscale's 2024 gender pay gap report

A common way to look at the gender pay gap is as a percentage of how much women make compared to what men make, or as a fraction of a dollar. In 2024, for every $1 that men make, women earn $0.83. This is what women make compared to men regardless of occupation, experience, education, or other compensable factors — i.e., when data are uncontrolled. However, Payscale is able to control for a wide variety of compensable factors, which might better illuminate why women are paid less. When data are controlled, women make $0.99 for every $1 that men make.

Although $0.99 may seem very close to $1, the red line in the chart below has never crossed the dotted $1 line in blue representing men’s pay. Even when women are doing the same jobs, the gender pay gap is not zero. It should be zero.

The differences in pay between men and women are consistent over years and across many different segments of data. While the controlled pay gap has started to close in a few key areas for the controlled pay gap since the Great Resignation, as we will explore, it still exists.

The gender pay over time through 2024 - uncontrolled vs. controlled | Payscale's gender pay gap report

The uncontrolled and controlled pay gap

The gender pay gap in 2024 is $0.83

In this report, we calculate and present the gender pay gap in two ways: controlled and uncontrolled. The uncontrolled gender pay gap is how women are paid compared to men holistically, which can be understood as a measure of how society values women’s contributions in the workforce compared to men’s. The uncontrolled gender pay gap is sometimes called the “opportunity gap” because it represents the unequal or inequitable distribution of employment and opportunities between men and women. The controlled gap measures “equal pay for equal work,” meaning how women are paid compared to men in the same jobs or similar jobs with similar qualifications.

In 2024, the uncontrolled gender pay gap is $0.83, meaning that women are employed in positions that collectively earn 17 percent less than men. The uncontrolled gender pay gap is not less meaningful than the controlled gender pay gap. It reveals the overall economic power disparity between men and women in society and how wealth and power are gendered. Even if the controlled gender pay gap disappeared — meaning women and men with the same job title and qualifications were paid equally — the uncontrolled gap would demonstrate that higher-paying positions are still disproportionately accessible to men compared to women.

When the data are controlled for job title and compensable factors, the gender pay gap narrows to $0.99. This still is not closed, meaning that at least some women are still receiving unequal pay for the same or similar work. This is best explained by gender bias, as segment cuts of the data will demonstrate.

Top jobs with the widest controlled pay gaps

While women earn $0.99 compared to men when data are controlled, the pay gap is wider for some jobs than others. To illustrate the impact of the controlled gap in concrete terms, Payscale looked at the top 20 jobs with the widest gender pay gaps. This list below shows the gender pay gap for specific jobs when compensable factors are controlled, meaning that women in these positions have the same qualifications as men in these positions.

The top 20 positions with the widest controlled gender pay gap include jobs in sales, jobs in religious organizations, jobs in finance, jobs in installation, maintenance, and repair, jobs in manufacturing, jobs in operations, and jobs in surgery. Holistically, these are jobs and industries subject to stronger gender norms, where it might be more challenging for women to find employment as well as compete for equal pay.

The job with the widest controlled pay gap in 2024 is Drivers/Sales Workers. People in these positions drive trucks or other vehicles over established routes to deliver goods such as food or laundry and may also take orders and collect payments. The controlled gender pay gap for this position is $0.83, which is notably equal to the overall uncontrolled pay gap in our study. For descriptions of each of the top 20 jobs with the widest pay gaps, see the methodology at the end of this report.

Again, it is important to understand that gender pay gap research and analysis illuminates societal bias that men are more suited to work and more deserving of higher pay than women — even when doing the same job. Although the data show the problem in aggregate, it is illegal when it happens at a specific organization unless the compensation methodology can equitably explain the discrepancies.

The top 20 jobs with the widest gender pay gap in 2024

*See ONET for descriptions of jobs, also in this report’s methodology

What causes the gender pay gap?

Many people do not believe that the gender pay gap is real because the uncontrolled pay gap does not account for differences in occupations, positions, education, job tenure, or hours worked. But the figures are still an important indicator of structural inequality and the potential differences in opportunities for men and women that affect and constrain the choices they make before they ever bargain with an employer over a wage.

With the demand for greater equity on the rise, creating a more inclusive workplace is a growing employer brand strategy for those looking to hire and retain top talent. Understanding the factors that drive the uncontrolled pay gap is an important consideration for talent strategy.

 

Opportunity gap widens pay for women | Payscale's 2024 gender pay gap

Parent status

The “motherhood penalty” explains the gender pay gap.

The motherhood penalty is a phenomenon where a woman’s pay decreases once she becomes a mother. In our online salary survey, we asked respondents to share if they were a parent, and we leveraged this sample to analyze pay gaps amongst men and women with or without children. When women indicated they were a parent or primary caregiver, we observed an uncontrolled pay gap of $0.75 for every dollar earned by a male parent, which is the same as last year. When we hold all else equal, mothers earn $0.98 for every dollar earned by fathers with the same employment characteristics.

Conversely, the gender pay gap shrinks between men and women who are not parents. The uncontrolled pay gap decreases to $0.88 on the dollar, suggesting women without children face fewer social barriers in climbing the corporate ladder or securing demanding, higher-paying jobs (despite mothers being just as capable). Women can also be penalized for the expectation that they might one day become mothers, even if they don’t want to have children, otherwise known as the “childbearing penalty.”

Most interestingly, when we control gender pay gap analysis for job characteristics, we observe pay parity. Earnings of women without children keep pace with earnings of men without children. This supports research that suggests that having a child or being able to have a child is the primary or true cause of gender pay disparities.

The 2024 gender pay gap by parent status shows that women make less than men when they have children

There are a range of disadvantages that impact wage progression for mothers. Research shows women’s income decreases because they reduce their working hours to balance childcaring responsibilities more than men. Women also face biases around parenthood, such as the notion that working mothers are less committed to their jobs, which can inhibit career progression. Meanwhile, men are sometimes paid more after having children.

In our analysis, we found that women without kids earn 99 percent of what mothers earn, but men without kids earn just 85 percent of what fathers earn when data are uncontrolled. When data are controlled for job title and other compensable factors, women without kids earn the same amount as mothers. Men, however, earn 2 percent more if they are fathers.

Differences in pay between genders by parent status in 2024 | Payscale's 2024 gender pay gap report

Age & Education

The gender pay gap widens as women age.

Women start their careers earning less than men when data are uncontrolled, and the pay gap only widens as they age. Between the ages of 20 and 29, women earn $0.87 compared to every $1 that men earn, which is one point higher than last year. This is due to women being employed in jobs that do not pay as much compared to the jobs that men occupy. When controlled for job title and other compensable factors, women and men earn equal pay in the 20–29 age bracket. This is the same as last year.

However, the pay gap widens for women between the ages of 30 and 44, with women overall earning $0.82 compared to every $1 men earn when data are uncontrolled and $0.98 when controlling for job title and other compensable factors. At age 45 and older, the gap widens further for the uncontrolled group, with women making only $0.74 compared to every $1 men make, which hasn’t changed since last year. The most likely explanation for the widening gender pay gap by age is some women becoming mothers and leaving the workforce, incurring the aforementioned motherhood penalty.

The gender pay gap in 2024 by age

The gender pay gap is not due to a lack of education.

Higher education does not lead to pay equity for women. The gender pay gap sees minimal or no improvement at higher educational attainment levels compared to a high school degree, which has a controlled pay gap of $0.97. While associate, bachelor’s, and master’s degrees close the gender pay gap slightly at $0.99, MBAs, law degrees, and doctorates see a wider controlled pay gap of $0.98.

The widest uncontrolled gap is for those with MBAs, which has persisted year over year. Women with MBAs take home $0.76 for every dollar that men with MBAs take home. This may be indicative of women struggling to get jobs requiring — and compensating for — an MBA compared to men.

Women with law degrees see one of the smaller uncontrolled gender pay gaps at $0.88, as do those with health professional doctorates at $0.89. This year, the gender pay gap does not close for any educational degrees — not even law degrees.

The gender pay gap by education in 2024

State & Metro

Pay transparency hasn’t closed the gender pay gap – yet.

Pay transparency legislation began requiring the publication of pay ranges in job ads in some states beginning in 2022. This picked up steam in 2023 and is expected to expand in 2024. The intent behind pay transparency legislation is to close the gender pay gap by forcing organizations to openly advertise pay ranges and thereby enforce pay equity. Some of the evolving legislation also requires employers to share pay data internally with existing employees. Posting salary ranges on job ads benefits women and minorities by removing some of the bias that disadvantages these groups in salary negotiation.

However, from our study, it is too soon to say definitively if this effort is working. Some states with pay transparency laws show smaller pay gaps than states without, but not consistently for either the controlled or uncontrolled pay gaps. On the bright side, we are seeing that some states have closed the controlled gender pay gap in recent years — which could be loosely attributed to growing awareness around pay equity from the pay transparency discussion, or it could also be a result of higher wages seen in the wake of the Great Resignation.

In 2024, the controlled pay gap has closed in California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, New Mexico, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, D.C., and Washington state. Most of these had closed controlled gender pay gaps last year also, except for Montana and North Carolina. However, some have also fallen off the list. This fluctuation is normal in gender pay gap research. The gap should only be considered truly closed when it has been consistently closed over years.

 

 

Pay transparency laws apply to municipalities too, so we also looked at the gender pay gap by major metro area. Metro locations with the widest uncontrolled gender pay gaps include Detroit and San Jose. The metros with the widest controlled gender pay gaps this year include Pittsburgh, Nashville, and Kansas City.

Interestingly, some metro areas last year showed that the gender pay gap closed for both controlled and uncontrolled pay data. This year, no metro areas showed their uncontrolled gender pay gaps have closed. However, a higher number of metro areas are showing closed controlled pay gaps.

One explanation for uncontrolled pay gaps widening is a slower economy and employers regaining control over the job market following the end of the Great Resignation, leading to lower salary offers and less focus on pay fairness for tenured employees that organizations are less afraid to lose. Another explanation might be organizations pulling back on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) due to political backlash and budget constraints.

Meanwhile, pay transparency legislation could be having a positive effect on major metros closing their controlled pay gaps — even in states without pay transparency laws — as many large organizations have offices throughout the country and have adopted pay transparency as a best practice regardless of location. Major metros with closed controlled pay gaps in 2024 include Tampa, Seattle, Orlando, San Diego, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Houston, Los Angeles, Raleigh, Washington, D.C., Boston, Cleveland, New York, and Portland.

 

Industry & Occupation

The controlled gender pay gap has closed for some industries.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), an agency of the Department of Labor (DoL), women are more heavily represented in industries such as Healthcare (77 percent), Education (69 percent), and Nonprofits (66 percent), which — not coincidentally — are more aligned with gender stereotypes about women being best suited for jobs related to caregiving, nurturing, and service to the community.

According to Payscale’s data, the uncontrolled gender pay gap is widest in Finance & Insurance ($0.77) and Agencies & Consultancies ($0.84), both of which have a higher percentage of women than men (53 percent and 59 percent respectively) but where gender stereotypes that women aren’t well-suited for math or problem solving may work against them. These industries also have a higher percentage of remote workers, at least since the pandemic, but the organizations that do not may be incompatible with women who need workplace flexibility, which could also explain the pay gap.

When controlling for compensable factors, Technology, Engineering & Science, Education, and Healthcare achieve pay equity, closing the gender pay gap. These are industries that have stronger pay equity practices with more skilled labor. These are also industries with more salaried workers that may be affected by pay transparency legislation.

The gender pay gap by industry in 2024

 

The gender pay gap widens for occupations with gender norms.

 

Occupation refers to a roll-up of jobs that are within a similar field, but which may not be the same as the industry to which the organization belongs. Women are most heavily represented in occupations including Healthcare Support, Healthcare Practitioners & Technical, Education, Training, & Library, Personal Care Services, Office Administrative Support, and Community and Social Services. These occupations mostly align to gender stereotypes that women are best suited for care and service.

Payscale’s research shows women are paid less than men in every occupational group we examined when data are uncontrolled, with the widest gaps being in Legal ($0.62), Farming, Fishing, & Forestry ($0.77), Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance ($0.79), Management ($0.80), and Education, Training, & Library ($0.82). The smallest uncontrolled gaps are in Healthcare Support ($0.96) and Community & Social Services ($0.96).

When data are controlled, the 2024 gender pay gap closes for occupations in Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance, Legal, Installation, Maintenance, & Repair, and Management. The occupations with the widest gender pay gaps when compensable factors are controlled include Education, Training, & Library ($0.90), Farming, Fishing, & Forestry ($0.93), and Sales & Related ($0.92).

Fluctuations from last year likely reflect the shift in the economy where higher-paid positions are harder to get, leading organizations to become pickier about hires, which may mean that women are experiencing more bias in the hiring and salary negotiation processes.

The gender pay gap by occupation in 2024

Remote work status

Women who work from home experience a wider pay gap.

This year, Payscale looked at the gender pay gap by remote work status. Survey participants were asked if they telecommuted, with answer choices ranging from No, I can’t telecommute to Yes, I can work from home some of the time or Yes, I work from home all of the time.

While there is a pay gap for women compared to men regardless of their work-from-home status, it is wider for women who work from home when data are uncontrolled. It should be noted that women who don’t work from home may be working low-paying minimum wage jobs or jobs with institutionalized/union-established pay. These jobs are more likely to have equitable pay as a built-in policy feature.

It is interesting that women who work from home have such a substantial pay gap at $0.79. It could be that these women are being penalized for needing to work from home to take care of children. However, women may work remotely for a variety of reasons. For example, their organization may not have an office, or they might also have health issues. Regardless of the reason, women working from home have a wider pay gap compared to women who go into an office. While the market has opened up for remote workers, those most likely to work from home are also more likely to make higher salaries, and there are more men in high-paying roles, which explains this gap.

It should be noted that the controlled gender pay gap closes for women who work from home some of the time versus all or most of the time. This suggests that women with some autonomy in choosing to work from home or not also have more equality than women who may need to take a 100 percent remote-work position.

2024 gender pay gap by remote work / WFH status

Job-seeking status

The gender pay gap narrows for women more willing to change jobs.

This year, we also looked at the gender pay gap by intent to seek a new job. Women who said they were seeking a new job in the next six months see a narrower pay gap than women who said they were not. This suggests that women who are willing to leave their jobs (or actually leave their jobs) more frequently are more likely to achieve higher pay, partially closing the gender pay gap.

Women who remain at their current job may feel more stuck in their position due to benefits they can’t give up, such as a flexible work schedule, and may tolerate lower pay for these exchanges. However, as we have seen, women working remotely earn less than men working remotely, which suggests that this exchange may not be fair to women when it comes to pay equity.

The gender pay gap in 2024 by job seeking status

Race & Ethnicity

The gender pay gap has narrowed for women of color.

Race and gender intersect and can result in wider pay gaps due to increased bias and different opportunity barriers, meaning that women of color can struggle more than white women to land high-paying jobs. In 2024, when data are controlled for compensable factors, most women of color finally achieve pay parity to men. Only Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women and white women saw the controlled gender pay gap not quite close this year.

2024 gender pay gap by race | Payscale's 2024 gender pay gap report

It should be noted that the uncontrolled pay gaps for women of color have been closing more rapidly than the pay gap for white women or the overall gender pay. For example, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black women, and Hispanic women used to have the widest gender pay gaps. Since 2019, the gender pay gap has closed by $0.05 for Black women, by $0.05 for American Indian and Native Alaskan women, by $0.04 for Hispanic women, and by $0.04 for women who are Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander. It has closed by $0.02 for white women and $0.01 for Asian women. This is partially a factor of the pay gaps for women of color being historically wider with more ground to cover, but it is still encouraging to see these gaps narrow year over year, even when the overall gender pay gap stagnates.

2024 gender pay gap by race closing over time

Pay gaps for women of color may have been closing more rapidly due to wage increases and expanded opportunities during the Great Resignation. The Black Lives Matter movement, which rose in prominence in 2021, and the subsequent increased focus on pay equity and diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) may also have contributed to pay gaps narrowing for women of color — especially the controlled pay gap. Pay transparency legislation may be having an impact as well.

While these improvements are encouraging, the gender pay gap has still not closed when data are uncontrolled, and the controlled pay gap needs to be continuously monitored for the narrowing of the pay gap to “stick.” With the labor economy having shifted back in favor of employers and many concerned about a recession, slowed growth, or decreased profits, organizations have been pulling back on investment in diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) programs. This could prove detrimental to pay gaps for women of color in future years and may be an issue during this election year.

Note: When analyzing by race, we restrict our sample to those with at least a bachelor’s degree as our data is more representative of salaried individuals. See methodology.

Job level

Women see wider pay gaps as they ascend the corporate ladder.

While pay equity for women of color is improving, women as a whole are still underrepresented in leadership roles, which can reinforce stereotypes that they do not make good leaders. This is why diversity in leadership is important, alongside pay equity. For example, 7 percent of white men become executives while only 4 percent of white women become executives. This number is further reduced for women of color.

2024 gender distribution by job level and race

Women who do make it to the top rungs of the workplace still make less than their elevated male counterparts. According to Payscale’s gender pay gap research, women of every job level (individual contributors, managers, directors, and senior executives) make less than men of the comparative job level. The gap also widens as women progress up the corporate ladder. Women at the executive level make $0.94 to every dollar a man makes, even when the same job characteristics are controlled for. In the uncontrolled group, women executives make $0.72 to every dollar a male executive makes, which is the same as last year.

 

 

In general, women are more likely to stay in individual contributor roles longer than men. We looked at the intersection of job level and age and job level and race and found that women are more likely to stagnate in their careers across the board. Women start out with controlled pay equity relative to white men at the individual contributor level, but as they progress up the corporate ladder, the gap widens. The gender pay gap is widest for Hispanic women at the executive level when data are controlled, currently standing at $0.89, which is two points wider than last year.

When data are uncontrolled, the difference across racial groups reflects the overall gender pay gap, with Asian and Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women suffering the widest gender pay gaps at $0.83 for every $1 white men make as individual contributors. The uncontrolled pay gap for women of color has improved at most job levels over last year. Still, Hispanic women suffer a dismal $0.65 for every $1 white men make as executives.

 

Methodology

Between January 2022 and January 2024, over 627,000 people in the U.S. took Payscale’s online salary survey, providing information about their industry, occupation, location, and other compensable factors. They also reported demographic information, including age, gender, and race. We leveraged this sample to provide insights into the controlled and uncontrolled gender pay gap. To ensure a fair comparison, we convert hourly compensation to annual compensation where necessary and re-scale annual compensation to a 40-hour work week where necessary.

It should be noted that Payscale’s employee-sourced online salary survey data weights toward salaried professionals with college degrees. When analyzing by race, we restrict our sample to those with at least a bachelor’s degree. This allows us to split data by demographic groups to make a meaningful comparison where our data is the strongest and to accurately report on racial pay gaps in the population. Our data isn’t as impacted by low-income hourly workers, so the data reported by Payscale might be dissimilar to what is reported by other institutions for the gender pay gap of the overall workforce.

Race/ethnicity

For analysis by race, we looked only at those with at least a bachelor’s degree. Racial gender pay gap numbers reported are relative to white men unless otherwise noted. Due to sample size issues, we are unable to report data on Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders beyond the manager level.

Respondents could choose one or more of the following and could opt to self-identify in an open response:

  • American Indian and Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Hispanic
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  • White
  • Prefer not to answer

Only respondents who chose exactly one of the above were included in our analysis of the gender pay gap by race.

O*NET OnLine has detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, developers, researchers, and more. https://www.onetonline.org/

Driver/Sales Workers: Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry. May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery.

Directors, Religious Activities and Education: Coordinate or design programs and conduct outreach to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling, guidance, and leadership relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.

Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers: Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.

Clergy: Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.

Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders: Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels.

Administrative Services Managers: Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services.

Credit Analysts: Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making.

Insurance Sales Agents: Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance. May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.

First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers. Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.

Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers: Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.

Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers: Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.

Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators: Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation. May also settle insurance claims.

Database Administrators: Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems. Coordinate changes to computer databases. Identify, investigate, and resolve database performance issues, database capacity, and database scalability. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases.

Production Workers, Other: Assemble or process products, operate or monitor production lines, check for defects, report equipment issues, etc., often in a shop, factory, or manufacturing plant.

Retail Salespersons: Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel, to consumers.

Physicians and Surgeons, All Other: Physicians and surgeons outside of the most popular disciplines, such as allergy and immunotherapy.

Cost Estimators: Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.

Maintenance and Repair Workers, General: Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of a building in repair. Duties may involve pipe fitting; HVAC maintenance; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs.

Finance Managers: Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment.

We also ask respondents to the survey if they are a parent or able to work from home. We compare the GPG by parent and remote work status. This sample was collected between January 2022 and January 2024 and comprised 378,523 respondents to the parent question and 388,850 respondents to the remote status question. We also evaluate pay equity among workers who are planning to seek a new job in the next six months against those who plan to stay in their job. This sample comprised 179,212 respondents.

Are you a parent or primary caregiver?

  • Yes
  • No

Are you able to telecommute / work from home?

  • Yes, I telecommute 100% of the time
  • Yes, I telecommute most of the time
  • Yes, I telecommute some of the time
  • Yes, I telecommute on an as-needed basis only (e.g., furniture delivery)
  • No, I can’t telecommute

Do you plan to seek a new job in the next six months? Yes/No

Total cash compensation: TCC combines base annual salary or hourly wage, bonuses, profit sharing, tips, commissions, and other forms of cash earnings, as applicable. It does not include equity (stock) compensation, cash value of retirement benefits, or value of other non-cash benefits (e.g., healthcare).

Median pay: The median pay is the national median (50th percentile) total cash compensation (TCC). Half the people doing the job earn more than the median, while half earn less.

Uncontrolled gender pay gap: Median pay for men and women are examined separately, and the difference in the median is reported as the uncontrolled gender pay gap. Variables such as years of experience and education are not controlled for. This provides a picture of the differences in wages earned by men and women in an absolute sense.

Controlled gender pay gap: This is the amount that a woman earns for every dollar that a comparable man earns — that is, the pay difference that exists between the genders after we control for all measured compensable factors. If the controlled pay gap is $0.97, then a woman would earn 97 cents for every dollar that a man with the same employment characteristics does.

Controlled median pay: To illustrate the gender pay gap, we calculate this estimate of what the typical woman would earn if she occupied the same position as the typical man.

Unemployment penalty: This is the percentage difference in the salary offered to an individual who is currently employed versus one who is currently unemployed, while controlling for relevant factors and excluding those who were unemployed to attend school or receive additional training. The unemployment penalty changes based on the duration of unemployment.

Industries: Payscale uses 15 industry categories that are custom aggregates of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

Occupations: We report data for 22 occupations as defined by the Standard Occupational Classification System.

Job levels

  • Individual contributor: employees who do not manage others
  • Supervisors/Managers: employees with people-management responsibilities
  • Directors: employees who manage managers but are below the level of vice president
  • Executives: employees with the title of vice president or higher

We present the gender breakdown by job group or industry according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey from January 2023. For Industries, we calculated a weighted average of the custom Payscale aggregations of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) groups when definitions span multiple NAICS industries (e.g., Technology).

As the industry leader in compensation management, Payscale is on a mission to help job seekers, employees, and businesses get pay right and to make sustainable fair pay a reality. Empowering more than 50% of the Fortune 500 in 198 countries, Payscale provides a combination of diverse and dynamic data sources, experienced compensation services, and scalable software to enable organizations such as Angel City Football Club, Target, Gainsight, and eBay to make fair and appropriate pay decisions. Pay is powerful. To learn more, visit www.payscale.com.

Download a copy of the gender pay gap report

Employers can make an impact on the overall gender pay gap. To do so requires analyzing the data and focusing on pay equity within their compensation management strategies. The 2024 Gender Pay Gap Report analyzes data from over 627,000 people in the U.S. who took Payscale’s free online salary survey between January 2022 and January 2024. The full report includes analysis by parent status, job-seeking status, remote work status, race, job level, age, education, industry, occupation, location, and more. Download a copy of the report to share with your organization.

The state of the gender pay gap in 2024 | Payscale

Elevate your compensation strategy today

Payscale is the industry leader in compensation management software, services, and salary data.

Request a demo